Amino acids are known as the building blocks of protein. There are twenty known amino acids required by the body. Nine are essential amino acids required in the body, and the other eleven non-essential amino acids are made when necessary by the body through linking with the essential amino acids. The essential amino acids must be consumed through the diet, as a deficiency can cause the body to slow down the building blocks of proteins, and even break down the muscle if amino acids are not supplied to the body in an adequate quantity. This can provide havoc for the body with any muscle building programme.
Turn the body into a muscle building machine that burns off bad fats. With the right diet, anybody can build muscle through weight training with a diet that contains the nine essential amino acids necessary to keep the body in optimum condition.
Non-essential amino acids, required for protein synthesis, are made by the body when necessary so do not need to be consumed through the diet. This process is known as transamination when one amino acid transfers to a carbon contained molecule, which then forms a distinct amino acid.
In order to make proteins, amino acids link together through a chemical bond known as peptide bond. A nitrogen atom of one amino acids linked to another amino acids forms the peptide bond. Dipeptides are formed when a peptide bond and two amino acids link. When three amino acids link to a peptide bond, they are known as tripeptides. Amino acids that bond together are known as polypeptides.
The protein in some foods undergoes protein denaturation, which changes the shape and physical properties of food. Take for example an egg, in its natural form it contains a clear liquid, but once cooked or denatured by cooking, it turns white and firm.
In order for proteins to be utilised by the body, dietary proteins need to be digested and absorbed. Amino acids then release to synthesise those essential proteins, which the body requires to provide energy or create the non-protein molecules.
There are several transport systems, which amino acids use. Those amino acids that compete for absorption, and contain similar structures share the same transport system. Proteins contained in food often contain all of each competing amino acid so no one amino acid is immersed by the body in very large quantities. If the diet, however, is supplemented with a large amount of one amino acid, the other amino acids, which share the same transport system and therefore their absorption, may be impaired. This reduces absorption of the other amino acids. For example, taking a supplement of lysine, an essential amino acid in large quantities would reduce the absorption of the other eight essential amino acids because they share the same transport system.
Essential Amino Acids
Non-essential amino acids:
*semi essential amino acids
Semi-essential amino acids
Some amino acids, such as Cysteine and Tyrosine form in the body from two essential amino acids: Methionine and Phenylalanine. If these two essential amino acids are in short supply, this is when the semi-essential amino acids become essential.
Complete proteins are contained in meat, dairy and egg products. These foods contain all of the twenty amino acids, including the nine essential amino acids. Incomplete proteins, such as vegetable proteins do not contain all of the nine essential amino acids.